Causes of high bilirubin: Liver disease: hepatitis, cholangitis, cirrhosis, other types of liver disease (including primary or secondary neoplasia); alcoholism (usually with high AST (SGOT), GGT, MCV, or some combination of these findings); biliary obstruction (intrahepatic or extrahepatic); infectious mononucleosis (look also for increased LD (LDH), lymphocytosis); Dubin-Johnson syndrome; Gilbert disease1 (familial hyperbilirubinemia) is encountered as a moderate elevation with otherwise unremarkable chemistries.
Anorexia or prolonged fasting: 36 hours or more may cause moderate rise.
Pernicious anemia, hemolytic anemias, erythroblastosis fetalis, other neonatal jaundice, hematoma, and following a blood transfusion, especially if several units are given in a short time.
Pulmonary embolism and/or infarct, congestive heart failure.
Drugs: A large number of drugs can cause jaundice by in vivo action or by chemistry methodology. Drugs causing cholestasis and/or hepatocellular damage include diphenylhydantoin, azathioprine, phenothiazines, erythromycin, penicillin, sulfonamides, oral contraceptives, anabolic-androgenic steroids, halothane, aminosalicylic acid, isoniazid, methyldopa, indomethacin, pyrazinamide, and others.